React has a few built-in test utils, usually we don’t use them directly but through some well integrated testing libraries and frameworks.

Since we have already covered a few topics of React internals, it would be interesting to see how these built-in test utils work internally.

We are going to look at act() today.

1. demo of act()

According to official document,

When writing UI tests, tasks like rendering, user events, or data fetching can be considered as “units” of interaction with a user interface. react-dom/test-utils provides a helper called act() that makes sure all updates related to these “units” have been processed and applied to the DOM before you make any assertions

Simply put things scheduled in act() should be run synchously.

Here is a demo.

function App() {
  useEffect(() => {

  return null;

const root = ReactDOM.createRoot(document.getElementById("container"));
root.render(<App />);
console.log("after render");

Since the rendering of concurrent mode is async and so are passive effects, we could expect the order of logs to be

after render

You can try it out here.

Now let’s wrap the rendering into act, try it out

function App() {
  useEffect(() => {

  return null;

const root = ReactDOM.createRoot(document.getElementById("container"));
React.unstable_act(() => root.render(<App />));
console.log("after render");

Now the order changes, effects are flushed synchrously.

after render

This would be useful during test, since the asynchrous behavior is inside of the blackbox of React, it could be easier to assert without await stuff.

2. how does act() work?

We’ve briefly explained how effect is run in The lifecycle of effect hooks in React.

Simply put, React runtime creates a new version of fiber tree and commits necessary changes to DOM, if there are passive effects, Scheduler schedules a task to run those effects. Here is the code in React repo.

The concept of Scheduler is that it keeps working on the tasks but without blocking the main thread for too long, the tasks are scheduled asynchrously through setImmediate() or MessageChannel callback or setTimeout. I explained it in this post - How Scheduler works.

So in order to make act() work, we need to change the behavior of Scheduler to sync under some condition. Well React does something like this but rather than changing the internals of Scheduler, it bypasses Scheduler.

ReactAct.js is the module of act(), it is a bit long, let’s try to break it down.

  1. ReactCurrentActQueue is very important, we can think of it as something similar to the task queue in Scheduler.
  2. when act(callback) is called, the callback is called here
  3. performConcurrentWorkOnRoot() is scheduled in the act quque.
  4. the queue is flushed by flushActQueue(), here
    • performConcurrentWorkOnRoot() results in callback of flushPassiveEffects() being pushed into the Act Queue.
    • flushActQueue() continues to flush all of the tasks.

The above flow seems straightforward, except we have one big question:

3. how callback is scheduled in the act queue ?

First ReactCurrentActQueue is defined and exported from ReactCurrentActQueue.js.

type RendererTask = (boolean) => RendererTask | null;

const ReactCurrentActQueue = {
  current: (null: null | Array<RendererTask>),

  // Used to reproduce behavior of `batchedUpdates` in legacy mode.
  isBatchingLegacy: false,
  didScheduleLegacyUpdate: false,

export default ReactCurrentActQueue;

Simply it holds reference of current to an array.

And we can find the call stack of how performConcurrentWorkOnRoot() is scheduled easily by breakpoint.

All the magic lies in scheduleCallback(), code here

function scheduleCallback(priorityLevel, callback) {
  if (__DEV__) {
    // If we're currently inside an `act` scope, bypass Scheduler and push to
    // the `act` queue instead.
    const actQueue = ReactCurrentActQueue.current;
    if (actQueue !== null) {
      return fakeActCallbackNode;
    } else {
      return Scheduler_scheduleCallback(priorityLevel, callback);
  } else {
    // In production, always call Scheduler. This function will be stripped out.
    return Scheduler_scheduleCallback(priorityLevel, callback);

We can clearly see that

  1. if the act queue is there, the the callback is pushed in the queue
  2. otherwise it goes into Scheduler.

After performConcurrentWorkOnRoot(), in the commit phase, we find there are passive effects to be flushed, code here.

if (
  (finishedWork.subtreeFlags & PassiveMask) !== NoFlags ||
  (finishedWork.flags & PassiveMask) !== NoFlags
) {
  if (!rootDoesHavePassiveEffects) {
    rootDoesHavePassiveEffects = true;
    pendingPassiveEffectsRemainingLanes = remainingLanes;
    // workInProgressTransitions might be overwritten, so we want
    // to store it in pendingPassiveTransitions until they get processed
    // We need to pass this through as an argument to commitRoot
    // because workInProgressTransitions might have changed between
    // the previous render and commit if we throttle the commit
    // with setTimeout
    pendingPassiveTransitions = transitions;
    scheduleCallback(NormalSchedulerPriority, () => {
      // This render triggered passive effects: release the root cache pool
      // *after* passive effects fire to avoid freeing a cache pool that may
      // be referenced by a node in the tree (HostRoot, Cache boundary etc)
      return null;

We can see scheduleCallback() is called again, meaning there is a new callback being pushed into the act queue, so the queue could be growing while being processed.

4. How act queue is exported ?

This is interesting, for the React runtime as explained above, the queue is imported under ReactSharedInternals.

import * as React from "react";

const ReactSharedInternals =

export default ReactSharedInternals;

And … yeah, it is through the global __SECRET_INTERNALS_DO_NOT_USE_OR_YOU_WILL_BE_FIRED, ok, good naming.

export {

It is exported as an alias to ReactSharedInternals.

if (__DEV__) {
  ReactSharedInternals.ReactDebugCurrentFrame = ReactDebugCurrentFrame;
  ReactSharedInternals.ReactCurrentActQueue = ReactCurrentActQueue;

So the code in the runtime is guarded by __DEV__, which is going to be stripped in the production build.

Why not just importing it? I don’t know…yet, it is more of a coding convention thing I think, tell me if you know more about it.

5. Summary

Cool, that’s it for act(), let’s summarize a bit.

  1. when act() is called, a shared callback queue - ReactCurrentActQueue is initialized.
  2. in React runtime, if under __DEV__ and ReactCurrentActQueue is not empty, the callbacks scheduled are pushed into the queue rather than scheduled in the Scheduler.
  3. in act(), ReactCurrentActQueue is processed and flushed until it becomes empty.

This answers why effects are flushed synchrously if under act(), since the tasks scheduled to flushPassiveEffects() are going to the queue, React Scheduler is bypassed.